Body’s defense mechanism plays an important role in maintaining the turbidity of the blood. It is the natural mechanism of the body which allows the inhibition of the foreign body in the organ system. Blood coagulation is also one of the parts of defense mechanism. Soon after the injury the blood starts the process of coagulation and repairs the injury caused to the blood vessel and to the endothelium. Blood coagulation is associated with the term hemostasis. Hemostasis is the procedure to stop the flow of blood. When vessels are injured, the platelets bind to the macromolecules in the endothelial tissues and associate to form primary hemostatic plug. The coagulation process involves both the components that is; cellular (platelets) and a protein (coagulation factors).
Soon at the site of injury the platelets form a thin layer of hemostatic plug, this layer is called the primary layer. Hence immediately after this, a secondary hemostasis is formed resulting into simultaneous signaling of the protein in the blood plasma called as coagulation factor to form fibrin strand that may fortify the platelet plug. The fast healing nature of the platelets may be congenital and hereditary.
The illness caused by coagulation factor is popularly called as hemophilias. These are of three type’s hemophilia A, hemophilia B and hemophilia C. This disease may be caused because of due to the liver failure. As in case of liver failure there arises the deficiency of the coagulating factor, which ultimately leads to the possibility of hemorrhage.
Thrombosis may be said to be the pathologically raised disease. Thrombosis is the blood clotting in the blood vessel. Embolism is also the similar type disease, in which the blood clot migrates to other part of the body and intervening with the functioning of the system. Thrombosis is caused ultimately due to the mutation in factor XII which do not show any pre-symptoms.
Many different type of mutation associated with angioedema (typeIII) which is the rare type of hereditary. The genetic engineering cloned a type of clotting factor angioedema VIII that prevents the blood from viruses like hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hemophilia is very rare in males.
By using various anticoagulants, one can prevent the formation of the blood clot in the vessel ultimately reducing the chances of the disease. Many a time fibrinolytic substances like streptokinase, urokinase, and tissue plasminogen activators are used to break the blood clots formed.